|. Pharmacy Profession:
Pharmacy as a career, Evaluation of Pharmacy profession, earlier
period, Middle to Modem Ages.
Introduction to Pharmacopoeias with special reference to Indian
Pharmacopoeia, B.P.; U.S.P.; and International Pharmacopoeia.
Imperial, Metric and S.I., Weights and measures, Interconversion
3. Classification of dosage forms:
Solids, Semisolids & Liquid dosage form.
Principles involved in the preparation of the following pharmaceutical
in I.P., and their uses.
Purified water, Deionized water, Distilled water and water for injection
4. Pharmaceutical Additives :
Diluents, Vehicles, bases, solvents, Organoleptic additives, surfactants
and their applications.
5. Size reduction and Size Separation
Definitions, factors affecting size reduction; principles, laws
and factors affecting energy requirements, different methods of
size reduction, study of Hammer mill, Fluid energy mill and disintegrator.
Various methods & equipments employed for size separation cg.
sieving,,, sedimentation, centrifugal elutration microscopic methods
6. Mixing and Homogenisation
Liquid mixing and powder mixing, mixing of semisolids, study of
different types of
mixers used in pharmaceuticals.
Number of lectures: 4
7. Clarification and Filtration:
Definitions, theory and Factors affecting Filtration, Types of
filter media, Filter Aids, and Selection of filters.
Equipments like gravity filter, pressure filter, vacuum filters,
filter press, leaf filters, continuous rotary drum Filter, edge
filter, sand filter, Membrane filters. Centrifugal types filters;
batch, semicontinuous & continuous type.
8. Heat Processes:
a. Evaporation Factors affecting evaporation, study of evaporating
stills and evaporating pans. Heat transferring
evaporators, Vapor compression evaporators, evaporation under reduced
b. Distillation: Importance of distillation in Pharmacy, methods
of distillation. Brief introduction to freeze drying,
sublimation, Desiccation and Exsiccation, Efflorescence and its
Number of lectures: 10
9. Extraction and Galenicals :
Extraction processes, study of percolation and maceration and their
modifications, Applications in the preparation of tinctures &
Number of lectures : 4
1. Preparation of following classes of products, involving the
use of calculations in metrology (at least 2 products from each
category where applicable)
2. Study of one monograph from the latest edition of Indian Pharmacopoeia
Demonstration of equipments (working procedure) for
a. Size Reduction and Size Separation
Mixing and Homogenization
Clarification and filtration
PHARMACEUTICS-II: UNIT OPERATIONS
Introduction to Pharmaceutical Engineering, Unit Operations concept
and requirement; Materials and energy balances.
2. Conveying of Solids:
Belt Conveyors; Chain conveyors; Screw conveyors and Pneumatic
3. Materials of Pharmaceutical Plant Construction, Factors affecting
the material selection for Pharmaceutical plants:
Physical, chemicals, Mechanical and economical. Suitability of
different materials for different plants i.e. ferrous metals-Cast
iron, steel, stainless steel; Non-ferrous mews - copper and alloys,
aluminum and alloys, lead, tin, silver, nickel and alloys, chromium,
zinc; Non-metals glass, stoneware, slate brick, concrete asbestos,
plastics, rubber, timber, ceramics and enamel.
Corrosions : Types, causes, theories and methods of prevention
4. Environmental Pollution and safety hazards :
Mechanical, chemical, electrical fire and dust hazards; safety
requirements; fire Extinguishers; accident records. Environment
control and Effluent treatment.
5 . Flow of fluids :
Fluid statics and dynamics, Basic equations, law of conservation
in fluid flow;
Measurement of pressure manometers; Types of flow, Reynold's number
and its significance; distribution of velocities in a pipe; friction
losses; pipe fittings and joints.
Measurement of fluid flow - Principles, and construction of venturimeter,
orifice me e , pitot tube, weirs, rotameter, and positive displacement
meter - current meter and disc meter. Flow controls - Plug cock,
Globe valves, Gate valves, and water hammer, unidirectional valves,
Automatic regulating valve.
Pumps - Reciprocating pumps, positive displacement pumps, rotary
pumps - volute and centrifugal pumps.
6. Heat transfer :
Modes of beat transfer; beat transfer coefficient; OHTC; Convection
- concept of film overall coefficient, Evaluation of Individual
film coefficient; radiation - Stefan Boltzmann law; beating media,
equipments, lagging. Fuels - solid, liquid, gases. Steam as beating
medium - properties and uses of steam, steam traps, pressure reducing
valve, steam heated heat exchanger, lagging, condensation etc. heating
7. Distillation :
Theory of distillation - vapor liquid equilibrium relationship,
volatility and relative volatility, Azeotropic -and Zeotropic mixture,
phase diagrams etc; Rectification and construction of columns; molecular
distillation; steam distillation; Enthalpy composition diagram and
determination of number of theoretical plates; HETP.
8. Refrigeration :
Theory of refrigeration, refrigeration current cycle, equipments
employed for large-scale refrigeration.
Air conditioning - humidification and dehumidification, cooling
towers - Principles and applications; different types.
Humidity - Determination methods, methods of increasing and decreasing
humidity. Application of humidity control in Pharmaceutical Industries.
Theory of drying - principles, equilibrium moisture content, rate
of drying; Drying of dilute solutions and suspensions - drum dryer,
spray dryer; Drying of solids - convection type tray dryer, tunnel
dryer, rotary dryer, fluidized bed dryer, vacuum oven, freeze dryer,
radiant beat dryers, Automation in drying process.
10. Leaching and Extraction :
Solid-liquid extraction, percolation, agitation; Liquid-liquid
extraction; small and large scale equipment; problems of crude drug
extraction; Theories of extraction of drugs, properties of solvents;
Extraction method's - small and large scale, factors affecting,
the choice of extraction, recovery of solvents from mare
11. Purpose of Engineering Drawing:
Use of precision drawing instruments and drawing materials, lines
of Engineering and their conventions. Lettering : Printing letters
and Figures, construction of ellipse, parabola, Hyperbola, cycloid
12. Element of Projection:
Free hand sketching, study of isometric objects into orthographic
views, sections in orthographies projections. Orthographic and isometric
projections of simple geometrical solids like cylinder, cone, cute,
prism and pyramids.
Experiments based upon theoretical portion preferably on the following:
1 Effect of thickness of filter media, hydrostatic pressure size
of filter media etc. on filtration rate.
2. Rate of drying, Equilibrium moisture content determination of
factors affecting rate of drying.
3. Effect of number of balls and speed of ball mill on the grinding
rate in ball mill.
Comparison of single stage and multiple stage extraction in solid-liquid
extraction Study of Reynold's number and flow
6 . Estimation of overall heat transfer coefficient in distillation
7. Determination of flow rate by Orifice and Venturimeters.
8. Calibration of pressure gauge with manometers.
Efficiency of a simple distillation unit and effect of insulating
materials on the efficiency.
Determination of efficiency of a steam distillation unit.
11. Determination of humidity by Psychometric method and physical
12. Determination of hardness of water.
Effect of driving fluids, on efficiency of ejector pumps.
14. Calibration of rotameters.
15. Factors affecting liquid displacement in air lift pumps.
Freeze drying of a solution of antibiotic. Suspension of lacto
- bacilii and evaluation.
PHARMACEUTICS-III: DISPENSING PHARMACY
Reading and understanding of prescriptions
Modern methods of prescribing; common Latin abbreviations
Reducing and Enlarging recipes; percentage calculations %
W/V, V/V, & w/w
Alcohol dilutions, use of Alligation methods; proof spirit
Isotonic solutions, mEq units
Displacement Value of suppositories
Dose and dosage of drugs Factors influencing dose.
Calculations of doses on the basis of age, sex and surface area
4. Powders :
Types of powders; their merits and demerits; compounding, storage
and packaging of
- Effervescent powders
- Granules, cachets and tablet triturates
- Dusting powders
5. Liquid Dosage forms :
Preparation, merits, demerits storage and packaging of solutions
and mixtures to pharmaceutics-
6. Emulsions and Suspensions :
Emulsions - Definition; types and identification; merits and demerits;
use of emulsifying agents and stability of Emulsions
Suspensions - Definition; Types; merits & demerits; use of
suspending agents; Flocculated & Deflocculated suspensions;
stability of suspensions
7. Semi-Solid Dosage forms :
Ointment bases; Dispensing; demerits and packaging
Aspects of Ointments
Pastes, Jellies, Poultices
Suppositories and Passeries
8. Tablets :
Types of tablets; merits and demerits storage and packaging
9 Capsules :
Hard and soft Gelatin Capsules -their merits and demerits; storage
10. Sterile Dosage forms :
Definition; Types and their merits and demerits -Elementary study
of the formulation characteristics of the following types :
- Injectable preparations
- Ophthalmic and ENT Products
- Total Parenteral nutrition
- Dialysis fluids
General requirements of sterile
dosage forms. Handling, packaging, storage and dispensing of sterile
11. Introduction to Ayurvedic/Unani Tibb dosage forms
12. Incompatibility in Prescriptions :
Physical, chemical, biological and therapeutic incompatibility
Labeling instructions and precautions while dispensing various
14. Current Patent and Proprietary Products
Study of the following classes of patent and Proprietary products;
Generic and selected brand names; Indications; contra indications;
ADR; available dosage forms; dose and packing
-Antacids and Ulcer healing drugs
-Anti-diarrhoeals and laxatives
-Analgesics - Antipyretics
1. Student's Orientation.,
Introduction to the laboratory equipment, weighing methodology,
general instructions and handling of prescriptions, labeling instructions
2. Compounding and Dispensing of Prescriptions:
At least 50 prescriptions, representing the following classes of
products, should be compounded and dispensed:
Powders; capsules; tablets; mixtures; Emulsions; Lotions &
Liniments; Ointments; creams; pastes; suppositories; ENT preparations;
Incompatibilities; Miscellaneous products
3. Current Patent and Proprietary Products:
A study of current patent and proprietary products. Students should
be trained in patient counseling by discussing specific problems
in major classes of patent and proprietary products
4. Prescription Reading and Pricing:
Minimum of 20 prescriptions from the clinical practice
Legal and Ethical aspects of Dispensing and compounding of prescriptions:
The students should be trained about these aspects evaluated by
Demonstration of Immunological products and pharmaceutical products
involved in family planning programs.
PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY 1 (ORGANIC CHEMISTRY)
1. Basic Principles and concepts of Organic Chemistry:
Atomic and molecular orbitals, dipole moment, resonance, inductive
and electromeric effects, intramolecular and intermolecular hydrogen
bonding, acids and bases.
Introduction, optical activity, stereoisomerism, specification
of configuration, reactions involving stercoisomers, Baeyers Strain
Theory and conformational analysis.
Structure, nomenclature, preparation and reactions/properties of
the following groups of compounds (including mechanism of reactions
3. Aliphatic & Alicyclic Hydrocarbons:
Alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, cycloalkanes.
4. Aliphatic Halohydrocarbons:
SN' and SN' reactions, chloroform, carbon. tetrachloride, trichloroethylene
5. Aliphatic Alcohols:
Primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols, methanol, ethanol, proof
alcohol, methylated spirit, determination of alcohol in pharmaceutical
preparations, di & trihydric alcohols: glycols, glycerol, ethylene
glycol, propylene glycol, glyceryl trinitrate, allylalcohol, acraldelhyde,
dimercaprol, ethobexadol, polyethylene glycols, polyoxyl 40 stearate,
Thioethers, divinyl ether, solvent ether, anaesthetic ether.
7. Aldehydes and Ketones:
Formaldehyde, trioxymethylene, paraformaldehyde, acetaldehyde and
its polymers, chloralhydrate, dichloro phenaxone, methenamine manderate.
8. Saturated Monocarboxylic Acids and Esters..
Preparation and properties of formic acid, acetic acid and derivatives,
propionic acid, butyric acid, valeric acid, palmitic acid and stearic
acid ethylacetate, ethyl acetoacetate ethyl nitrate, pentaerythritol
tetranitrate, dioctyl sodium sulphosuccinate, ethyl oleate, sodium
lauryl sulphate, acylhalides, lactic acid, lactides, lactones, glucuronic
acid and gluconic acid.
9. Di & Tricarboxylic Acids:
Oxalic acid, malonic acid, succinic acid and their amide and imide
derivatives, maleic acid and fumaric acid, malic acid, glutaric
acid, tartaric acid, citric acid and adipic acid.
10 Aliphatic Amines and Related Compounds:
Alkylamines 8-hydroxy and 3-alkylamines, diamines, urea and ureides,
dextropropoxyphene hydrochloride, cramiphen hydrochloride, dicyclamine
hydrochloride mustine hydrochloride, ethylenediamine hydrate, sodium
calcium edetate, cyclamic acid calcium cyclamate, sodium cyclamate,
Reactions involving carbanions: malonic ester, synthesis of carboxylic
acids, acetoacetic ester, synthesis of ketones, Decarboxylation
of 8-ketoacids and malonic acids, direct and indirect alkylation
of esters and ketones, alkylation of carbonyl compounds via enamines,
et, B-unsaturated carbonyl compounds (conjugate addition) including
Michael and Diels- Alder reaction.
1. Lassaigne's test for N,S and halogens.
2. Identification of organic compounds based on solubility and
functional group test.
Performance of qualitative test for alkaloids, steroids carbohydrates,
glycosides, proteins and
4. Test for identity of selected drugs: atropine, caffeine, quinine,
glucose, sucrose, barbiturates, ascorbic acid & sulphanilamide.
(INORGANIC MEDICINAL PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY)
Sources of impurities in pharmaceutical substances and their control
The following topics will be treated covering an outline of methods
of preparation, tests for identity, assay procedure and pharmaceutical
uses of compounds covered under following headings:
Pharmaceutical aids and necessities: Acids, bases, buffers, antioxidants,
water and pharmaceutically acceptable glass.
Major intra and extra cellular electrolytes: Major physiological
ions, electrolytes used in replacement therapy, physiological acids-base
balance, electrolytes used in acid-base therapy, electrolyte combination
Essential and trace ions: Copper, zinc, chromium, manganese, molybdenum,
selenium, sulfur and iodine.
Gastrointestinal agents: Acidifying agents, antacids, protective
and absorbents, saline cathartics.
Radiopharmaceutical used in medicine: Therapeutic application of
isotopes, diagnostic application of isotopes, radio assay methods
in medicine (preliminary knowledge).
Topical agents: Antimicrobials and astringents.
Dental products: Anticaries agents and dentifrices.
Miscellaneous Inorganic Pharmaceutical agents: Inhalants; respiratory
stimulants, expectorants and emetics, antidote, tableting aids and
Limit tests for impurities in pharmacopial compounds.
Quantitative analysis-assay of the following compounds will be
done: solution of ammonia, boric acid, sodium bicarbonate, sodium
carbonate, ferrous sulphate, strong and weak iodine solutions, copper
sulphate, chlorinated lime, sodium chloride, ammonium chloride,
sodium sulphate, calcium gluconate, magnesium sulphate, arsenic
trioxide, bismuth oxychloride, bismuth subnitrate.
1. Introduction, development, pre4ent status, future and scope,
of Pharmacognosy. Scope and significance of biology in Pharmaceutical
Sciences Modem concept of Biology viz. molecular, Physiological
and biochemical concept.
Introduction to different group of plant constituents and their
tests, Definitions of selected botanical and Pharmacological terms.
4. Principles of classification of plants with special reference
i) Algae: Rhodophyetac (Agar, Alginic acid )
Fungi: Eumyeetes (Ergot, Yeast, Mushrooms)
iii) Gymnosperm: Pinaceae, Gnetaccae.
Angiosperm: Apoeynaccae, Compositac, Convulvulaceat Labiatac, Rublaceac,
Solanaceae, Scrophularlaceac, Umbelliferae, lxguminosae.
Study of plant tissue and ergastic cell inclusion with a view to
identify & authenticate powder crude drugs with emphasis on
anatomical structures of bark, stem (Monocot, Dicot).
6. Different systems of classification of crude drugs.
Different system of medicine practiced in India with specific reference
to Unani, Ayurvedic and Homoeopathic medicines.
Factors involved in the production of drugs from wild and cultivated
sources including cultivation, collection, drying storage, commerce
and quality control.
Biological source, chemical tests for identity and salient microscopic
features of commercial fibres used as surgical dressings and filtering
aids.Cotton, silk, wool and rayon.
10. Natural Pesticides and insecticides.
1. Taxanomic study of families included in theory. Microswpical
studies. Basic tissues, anatomy of bark, stem (Dicot, Monmot), root
(Dicot, Monowt), seed, leaf and fruit. Trichomes, stomata, Calcium
3. Study of surgical fibers and dressings.
General chemical test for plant constituents such as alkaloids,
glycosides, tannins, saponins, resins and proteins.
HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY (THEORY)
Definition and scope of anatomy, physiology and related sciences.
Anatomical terms in relation to parts of the body, system and organs.
Study of human skeleton.
1. Structures and their functions
2. Genetic control of cell function
III. TISSUES OF THE BODY
Types of tissues and their functions
Physiology of muscle contraction
3. Neuromuscular transmission
General principles of membrane permeability, transport
2. Mechanisms and electrophysiology of membrane
V. NERVOUS SYSTEM
1. General anatomy and physiology of neurons, synapses, neurohumoral
2. Central nervous system, its various parts and their functions
RAS, Limbic system, Physiology of sleep, CSF, Sensory and motor
4. Autonomic nervous system
5. Reflex arc, conditioned and unconditioned reflexes
VI. CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM AND BLOOD
1 . Structures and functions of heart and blood vessels
Heart sounds, ECG, Cardiac cycle, Blood pressure and its regulations
4. Lymphatic system
5. Blood composition and functions
Blood groups, Rh factor, blood transfusion.
VII RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
Gross anatomy of respiratory passages
Regulation and mechanism of breathing and pulmonary function test.
Transportation of gases.
Hypoxia, Anoxia, Dyspnoea, artificial respiration
VIII DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
Gross anatomy of the alimentary canal
Physiology of digestion
Liver and pancreas
IX ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
Physiological consideration of thyroid, parathyroid, pancreas,
pituitry, suprarenal and gonads.
X REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
Structure and function of male female reproductive organs.
Puberty, ovulation, menstrual cycle, reproductive cycles
Pregnancy, lactation and menopause.
XI URINARY SYSTEM
General disposition of organs of excretory system
Physiological consideration of urine formation and factors controlling
Micturition Regulation of body fluid constituents and their volumes,.
XII SPECIAL SENSES
Physiology of hearing, taste, smell and vision.
Structure and functions of skin
Regulation of body temperature
Study of human skeleton and bones.
Study of models of organs of various body systems.
Study of surgical instruments
Handling of microscope
Identification of various tissues
Estimation of hemoglobin
Total RBC count
Total WBC count
Differential leukocyte count (DLC)
Determination of blood group and Rh factor.
Determination of ESR.(demonstration)
Determination of blood clotting and bleeding time
Identification of plasmodium species in the human blood
IV MUSCLE PHYSIOLOGY
Study of equipments used in experimental physiology.
Study of simple muscle curve
Muscle fatigue, effect of load and after load.
Effect of temperature on muscle contraction
Pulmonary function test using spirometer.
VI NERVOUS SYSTEM
Study of reflux action
Recording of body temperature by various techniques
Recording and interpretation of EEG.
VIl. CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
Determination of blood pressure by palpatory and auscultating methods
2. Recording ECG and its interpretation
PHARMACEUTICAL MATHS AND BIO STATISTICS
A. Statistics and Calculus
Condensation of the data collected; various forms of distribution
Pictorial representation of frequency distribution in histograms
and frequency polygons.
Measures of central tendency.
Measures of dispersion-range, mean deviation and standard deviation,
coefficient of variation.
Significance tests-test of significance and chi-square test of significance.
Correlation between two variables
Use of log-log graph.
Limits of algebraic functions.
Lim Sin o/o; axioms on limits; of trig. Functions.
Differential coefficient of a function; derivatives of xn, NoR.
Derivative formula of sum and difference of two functions generalizing
it for more than two; derivative of product of two functions-generalizing
it for the product of 3 functions; derivatives of quotient of two
Derivative of trignometrical functions and inverse functions.
Derivative by method of substitution.
Derivative of function of a function.
Derivative by method of substitution.
Derivative of function of a function.
Parametric functions; implicit function; log. Differentiation.
Higher order derivatives.
Total differentials and total derivatives, higher order , partial
Tangent and normal, velocity and acceleration
Approximate values, maxima and minima,
Derivation of formulae of integration from derivative formula
Integration of sum and difference of two functions
Integration by substitution, integration by parts,
The relationship of integration to summation
Definite integration, interpretation of definite integration, as
an area , area of circle.
R and B (beta) functions
Double integrals, S.S (x,y) dydx over a particular region and its
Ordinary differential equations of the first order
Linear differential equations with constant coefficient
Simultaneous differential equations.
PHARMACEUTICAL MICROBIOLOGY INCLUDING BIOLOGICAL PHARMACY
History of Microbiology its branches and its importance; general
techniques, identification, staining, enumeration etc. General
classification of micro - organisms & study of bacteria, moulds,
yeasts, viruses & actinomycetes -Nutrition, cultivation, Isolation
and identification; Effect of moisture, temperature, ion, light
and pH on the growth of micro - organisms; bacteriological media;
Bacterial metabolism - EMP and TCA pathways; Salient features of
common communicable disease producing microbes; study of different
types of microscopy; bacterial resistance.
2. Immuunology :
Introduction, Types of Immunity, Immunological products like sera,
vaccines, toxoids: Phagocytosis, antigens, antibodies, components;
Immune systems-humoral immunity, cellular immunity, privileged graft,
sites, graft host reaction; tolerance, immunogenetics; Types of
reactions and their application.
Preparation and standardization of Immunological products e.g.
BCG vaccines, diphtheria toxoids, small pox vaccine, poliomyelitis
vaccine; tetanus anti-toxin, diagnostic biologicals; General method
of the preparation of bacterial vaccines, toxoids; viral vaccine;
rickettsial vaccines; anti-toxins; serum-immune blood derivatives
and other products relative to immunity; Interferon.
Factors influencing disinfection; dynamics of Disinfection; disinfectants,
antiseptics and their evaluation.
4. Sterilization methods and Principles :
Methods of sterilization; Physical, Chemical, Heat, radiation,
gaseous, filtration. Evaluation of the efficiency of sterilization
methods; Equipments employed in large scale sterilization. Examples
of the materials sterilized by different methods. Sterility indicators.
5. Sterility testing of pharmaceutical products:
Sterility testing of products according to IP, BP and USP. Sterility
testing of parenteral products - solids, liquids; Ophthalmic and
other sterile products according to the I.P., B.P. and U.S.P. Sterility
testing of sterile surgical devices; dressings, implants, absorbable,
haemostats, surgical ligatures and sutures, surgical catgut etc.
6. Aseptic Technique :
Designing of aseptic area ,laminar flow equipments; study of different
of contamination aseptic area and methods of prevention.
7. Fermentation Technology:
Fermentation methods and general requirements; study of media,
equipments, sterilization methods, aeration process, stirring, etc.
Large scale production fermenter design and its various controls.
Study of the production of - penicillins, citric acid, fungal diastase
8. Microbiological Standardization
Microbiological methods for standardization of antibiotics, vitamins
and amino acids;
Immunoassay; Assessment of a new antibiotic and testing of antimicrobial
activity of a new substance.
9. Microbial spoilage and preservation of Pharmaceutical products:
Types of spoilage; factors affecting the microbial spoilage of
sources and types of microbial contaminants; assessment of microbial
contamination and spoilage; preservation of pharmaceutical products
using antimicrobial agents; Evaluation of microbial stability of
10. Control of microbial contamination during manufacture :
General aspects-environmental cleanliness and hygiene, quality
of starting materials, process design, quality control and documentation.
11. Glandular products
Preparation of extracts and isolation of pure substances for the
preparation of dosage
forms, e.g. Pituitary, Adrenal, pancreas, Thyroid, Parathyroid,
Ovary, liver, stomach etc.
Exercise illustrating the course contents of theory including :
Preparation of various types of culture media
Studying of different laboratory equipments and processing e.g.
laminar flow, aseptic hood, autoclave, hot air sterilizer, deep
freezer, refrigerator, microscopes etc.
Subculturing of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, fungus and yeast,
Nutrient stabs and slants
Various staining methods-simple, Grams staining and acid fast staining,
Isolation of pure culture of micro-organisms and identification
Evaluation of sterilizing techniques.
Evaluation of antiseptic and disinfectants e.g. RWC, FDA method
and chick martin.
Sterility testing-different methods as per IP/BPIUSP
Hanging drop slide preparation
Biochemical reactions-starch hydrolysis, nitrate reduction, litmus
milk test, gelatin
liquification and haemolysis of blood.
Microbial viable count in a pharmaceutical product, total count
Thermal death time
Microbiological assay of antibiotics & vitamin B12
Test for limit of alkalinity of glass
Standardization of surgical dressings and sutures and ligatures
Studying the effect of Temperature, pH on the medium etc. on growth.
Isolation of an antibiotic producer.
Bacteriophage isolation and characteristics
Standard analysis of water & Biochemical oxygen demand
Normal throat flora
Studying of the environment microflora and testing of aseptic area
e.g. dextrose injection, calcium gluconate injection, oily injections,
injections of vitamins etc.
PHARMACEUTICS-V: PHYSICAL PHARMACY
1. Complexation and Drug action:
Metal complexes, Organic molecular complexes, Inclusion compounds,
methods of analysis, crystalline structure of complexes, thermodynamic
treatment of stability constants, protein binding.
2. Kinetic and Drug Stability:
Rates and orders of reactions, influence of temperature and other
factors on reaction rates, Decomposition and stabilization of Medical
agents, Accelerated stability analysis.
3. Surface and interfacial phenomenon:
Surface and interfacial tension, surface free energy, measurement
of surface and interfacial tension, spreading coefficient, complex
films, adsorption phenomenon, adsorption at solid/liquid interface.
Surface activity, general classification of surfactants, hydrophilic-lipophilic
system, solubilization, factors affecting solubilization, mechanism
of solubilization, pharmaceutical applications of solubilization,
co-solubilization. Micelle formation, factors affecting micelle
formation, determination of critical micelle concentration. Detergency,
Emulsification, Wetting agent, foaming agent, Antifoaming agent.
Medicinal and Pharmaceutical application of surfactants.
4. Colloids and Macromolecular system :
Introduction, Types of colloidal systems, optical properties of
colloids, kinetic properties
of colloids, Electrical properties of colloids, stabilization.
Interaction of colloids.
Fundamentals of Rheology, Introduction, Types of flow, quantitative
measurement of flow, mechanical models to illustrate viscoelasticity,
Thixotropy, Measurement of thixotropy, Thixotropy in formulations,
Rheology of disperse systems, Application of Rheology to Pharmacy,
Methods of measuring viscosity.
Introduction, importance in Pharmacy, fundamental properties of
collection of particles
like particle size, particle size distribution, particle shape,
particle volume, particle number, surface area, methods for determining
particle size, surface area and particle volume, derived properties
of loose powder, flow properties of powders, Angle of repose, factors
affecting flow of powders.
7. Coarse Dispersions:
Suspensions - Interfacial properties of suspended particles, settling
formulation of suspension, Emulsions; theories of emulsification,
physical stability of emulsions, preservation of emulsions, rheologic
properties of emulsions, phase equilibria and emulsion formulation.
8. Diffusion and Dissolution:
Steady state diffusion, procedures and apparatus, Dissolution,
drug release, diffusion principles in biologic systems,. vapor sorption
and transmission and thermodynamics of diffusion.
Preparation and properties of simple complexes
Design, Conduction and reporting of accelerated testing in studying
chemical stabilization against hydrolytic decomposition of
Determination of surface and interfacial tension ,
Preparation and properties of colloids.
Viscosity determination of Newtonian and Non-Newtonian liquids by
one point and multipoint viscometers.
Determination of HLB value of surfactant by saponification method.
Determination of HLB value by modified Griffin acacia emulsion method.
Determination of spreading coefficient of organic liquid by stalagamometer.
Determination of particle size by optical method.
Determination of particle size by sieving method and efficiency
of screening operation.
Determination of particle size by sedimentation method using and
Determination of flow properties of powder through the tube as a
function of length of
tube, diameter of orifice of tube and pressure head.
Experiments demonstrating the measurement of angle of repose of
powders and the factors
Determination of CMC (Critical Micelle Concentration) of surfactants
by surface tension
Experiments demonstrating the usefulness of solubilizing agent in
forming a clear liquid
phase of two immiscibles liquids (Ternary phase diagram) .
Qualitative and quantitative study of adsorption phenomenon.
Determination of bulk density of pharmaceutical solid
Any other new experiment that can be included from time to time
in support of' the theoretical aspects of the course.
PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY III: PHARMACEUTICAL
1. Introduction: Significance of quantitative analysis in
quality control, different techniques of analysis.
2. Acid-base titrations
Theories of acidimetry and alkalimetry, classification, direct
titration of strong acids, weak acids, strong bases & weak bases.
Preparation and standardization of acids and haws. Some exercises
related to the determination of acids & bases. Some official
assay procedures e.g. boric acid, hydrochloric acid, phosphoric
acid, sodium hydroxide, calcium carbonate, ammonium hydroxide, nitric
acid, sulfuric acid.
3. Oxidation & reduction titrations:
Concepts of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, strengths
& equivalent weighs of oxidizing and reducing agents, redox
indicators, potassium permanganate titrations, iodometry & iodometry,
9£dcammonium sulphate titrations, potassium iodate titrations.
Pharmaceutical applications, preparation and standardization of
redox titrants e.g. sodium thiosulphate etc. Some exercises related
to determination of oxidizing and reducing agents in a given sample
shall be covered.
4. Precipitation titrations
Preparation & standardization of titrants like silver nitrate,
ammonium thiocyanate; titrations according to Mohr's and Volhard's
methods; ammonium and potassium thiocyanate titrations; indicators;
applications in pharmaceutical analysis.
5. Diazotisation titrations
Different conditions involved in diazotisation of different amines,
end point determination, pharmaceutical analytical applications
such as in the assay of sulfonamides.
6 Gravimetric analysis
Introduction, precipitation techniques, supersaturation, coprecipitation,
digestion, washing of the precipitates, filtration paper and crucibles,
ignition, specific examples of Gravimetric estimations like barium
as barium sulphate, aluminum as aluminum oxide, calcium as calcium
oxalate, magnesium as magnesium pyrophosphate. Other organic precipitants.
7. Non-aqueous titrations
Theoretical considerations, scope and limitations, acid base equilibria
in non-aqueous media, titration of weak bases, titration of weak
acids. Pharmaceutical products should be selected for illustration
e.g. ephedrine, methyldopa, adrenaline acid tartarate etc.
8. Complexometric titrations
Types of Complexometric titrations, metal ion, indicators, factors
influencing the stability of complexes and applications e.g. calcium
gluconate, bismuth carbonate, bismuth subnitrate.
Acid base titrations: Preparation and standardization of acids
and bases, some exercises related to the determination of acids
and bases separately and in mixture form. Some official assay procedures
e.g. of boric acid, ascorbic acid shall also be cove
Oxidation-reduction titrations: Preparation and standardization
of some redox titrants e.g. potassium permanganate, potassium dichromate,
iodine, sodium thiosulphate etc. Some exercises related to the determination
of oxidizing and reducing agents in the sample shall be covered.
Exercises involving use of potassium iodate, potassium bromate,
2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol, ceric ammonium sulphate shall be
Precipitation titrations: Preparation and standardization of titrants
like silver nitrate and ammonium thiocyanate, titrations according
to Mohr's and Volhard's methods.
Gravimetric analysis: Determination of water of hydration, some
exercises related to Gravimetric estimation of metal ions such as
barium, magnesium & calcium shall he covered.
PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY IV: ORGANIC CHEMISTRY INCLUDING HETEROCYCLIC
AND MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY)
1. Aromatic Compounds: Structure and resonance of benzene, aromatic
character, mechanism of electrophilic aromatic substitution, orientation
effects in electrophilic substitution, nucleophilic aromatic substitution.
2. Preparation, properties and actions of. Phenols sulphonic acids
and derivatives, carboxylic acids, carboxamides, nitro compounds,
amines, diazonium salts, aryl halides and ketones.
3. Poly nuclear aromatic hydrocarbons: Naphthalene, phenanthrene
4. Heterocyclic compounds: Study of fundamentals of heterocyclics,
nomenclature, methods of synthesis and important chemical reactions
of the following:
Five-membered heterocycles: furan, thiophene, pyrrole, thiazole,
oxazole, imidazole, pyrazole, triazole and tetrazole.
Six-membered heterocycles: Pyridine, pyridazine, pyrimidine, pyrazine
and pyrones. Benz-fused heterocycles: Quinoline, isoquinoline, indole,
acridines and xanthone.
5. The following topic shall be treated covering outlines of synthetic
procedures (of selected drugs), uses, structure activity relationship
including physicochemical and steric aspects and mode of action.
Sedatives and hypnotic, thyroid hormones and antithyroid drugs,
coagulants and anticoagulants, local anesthetics, general anesthetics,
opiod analgesics, CNS stimulants, antiseptics and disinfectants,
sulfonamides and surfactants.
1. Identification of organic compounds and preparation of simple
derivatives.Synthesis based on O-and N-acetylation, nitration and
1. Modern concept of Pharmacognosy, sources of drugs from biological,
marine and plant tissue culture.
2.Classification and chemistry of carbohydrates. Study of drugs
dealing with biological sources, geographical distribution, collection,
commercial production, chemical constituents, chemical tests for
identity, substitutes, adulterants and uses of the following drugs.
Starches, Acacia, Tragacanth, Sterculia, Guargum, Plantago and
3. Study of lipids, their chemistry, classification & biogenesis,
lipid containing drugs dealing with general methods of extraction
& purification of fixed oils, biological source, chemical constituents,
tests for identity and uses of the following:
Arachis oil, Castor oil, Sesame oil, Cotton seed oil, Olive oil,
Chaulmoogra oil, bees wax.
4. Drugs of animal origin: Shellac, Cochineal, cantharides, spermaceti,
5.Tannin containing drugs. Catechu (Black & Pale), Tannic acid,
Myrobalon, Katha industry in India.
6. Protein containing drugs: General chemistry and study of amino
7. Plant allergens and allergenic substances.
8. Hallucinogens, narcotics and common poisonous plants of India.
9. General study of formation of secondary metabolites". Biogenesis
of primary metabolites and importance of photosynthesis in formation
of primary metabolites and their relationship to the formation of
secondary metabolises (Calvine Cycle, TCA cycle, shikimic acid pathway,
Embden Merrhoffs pathway, acetate hypothesis, isoprenol compound
10. Evaluation of crude drugs.
1. Microscopic and chemical study of the following powdered drugs.
Leaf - Senna, Datura
Stem - Ephedra
Root - Rauwolfia
Seed - Nux-vomica. plantago
Bark - Cinchona Fruit- Fennel
2. Identification of the drugs on the basis of their organoleptic
and chemical tests included in 2,3,4 & 5.
PATHOPHYSIOLOGY, TOXICOLOGY AND HEALTH EDUCATION
I General aspect of pathophysiology - Atrophy, necrosis,
pain, irritation, inflammation. shock, allergy
II. Pathophysiology and clinical assessment of -
1. Disorders of cells and tissues - hypoplasia, hyperplasia, hypertrophy,
metaplasia, neoplasia and general considerations
2. Disorders of blood cells - leukopenia, leukemia, erythrocyte
disorders (anemia polycythemia etc.), hemorrhagic diseases (thrombocytopenia,
fibrinogen deficiency, purpura etc.)
3. Disorders of blood vessels and heart - atheroma, arteriosclerosis,
aneurysms, thrombophlebitis, embolism, varicose veins, congestive
cardiac failure, ischaemic heart disease, rheumatic heart diseases,
arrhythmia, hypertension, Burger's disease
4. Disorders of the respiratory tract - tonsillitis, bronchitis,
bronchial asthma, emphysema, cough.
5. Disorders of the digestive tract -.gastritis, peptic ulcers,
pancreatitis, cirrhosis of the liver, jaundice
6. Disorders of the urinary system - glomerulonephritis, renal
7. Disorders of the nervous system and special senses- Multiple
sclerosis, hypoxia, dementia,
Parkinsons' disease, chorea, Alzheimer's disease, migrain, depression,
8. Disorders of the reproductive system - Impotency, infertility,
9. Disorders of bone, joints and cartilages - Osteoporosis, gout,
10. Disorders of eye - glaucoma and cataract
Definition, scope and its branches
Teratogenicity and Carcinogenicity
Toxicity of heavy metals and their antidote
Management of poisoned patients
IV. Health Education
Spread and prevention of communicable disease- AIDS, Sexually Transmitted
Disease, Small pox, measles, influenza, diphtheria, whooping cough,
meningitis, tuberculosis, polio-militias, viral hepatitis, cholera,
typhoid, diarrhea, amoebiasis, malaria, filariasis, rabies, tetanus,
Control of population explosion, national family program means
of contraception (mechanical, chemicals, surgical, Immunological,
physical and physiological).
Immunisation various vaccines, toxoids and their uses.
I. General Pharmacology
Definition, scope and branches of pharmacology. Historical development
with special reference to India
Sources of drugs
Routes of drugs administration and drug delivery systems
Dynamics of absorption, distribution and excretion of drugs
Basic pharmacokinetic parameters employed in the use of drugs, their
bioavailability and biotransformations, metabolizing
enzymes as targets of drugs action (induction and inhibition)
Mechanisms of drugs action, drug receptors and cellular signaling
Drug antagonism and synergism
Drug dependence and related conditions
Adverse drug effects and their monitoring, Iatrogenic diseases
II. Pharmacology Of Autonomic Nervous System
Cholinergic receptors, cholinergic drugs (parasym-pathomimetics,cholinomimetics,
anticholinesterases), anticholinergic drugs
Adrenoceptors, sympathomimetics, adrenoceptors blockers and adrenergic
Drugs action on autonomic ganglia (ganglionic stimulants, ganglion
Neuromuscular blocking agents and centrally acting muscle relaxants
Serotonin, agonists and antagonists
Arachidonic acid metabolites
Angiotensin, Plasmakinins, VIP, neurotensin, substance P, PAF
IV Drugs In Ocular Pharmacology
Mydriatic and miotic agents and drugs used in glaucoma
1.Study of instruments used in experimental Pharmacology, smoking
and fixing a kymograph
2.Handling of laboratory animals
3.Techniques of drug administrations in animals
4.Influence of route of administration of drugs on drug response
5.Experiments on isolated tissue preparations
i. To record the CRC of acetylcholine using frog rectus
ii. To record CRC of acetylcholine using guinea pig ileum
iii. Determination of dose ratio
iv. Study of competitive antagonism using acetylcholine and histamine
v. Potentiation of acetylcholine responses with anticholinesterases
vi. Identification of an agonist using isolated tissue (frog rectus
abdominus muscle, guinea pig ileum)
vii. Determination of pD2 value
6.Study of drug absorption in vitro
7.Determination of intraocular pressure in rabbits
1. History of Computer development and respective generations:
Abaceer, Napier, Bonar, Slide rule, PASCAL'S calculator. Need to
use computers, applications in pharmacy and in general
2. Computer Classification:
Mainframe, Mini, and Micro computers, comparison of Analogue and
Digital computers, Hardware and software, calculator and computer.
3. Operating Systems:
Introduction to types of operating systems, UNIX, MS-DOS etc. RAM,
Virtual Memory etc.
4. Type of Languages:
conventional languages, Their advantages, limitations; C, PASCAL,
FORTRAN, Programming of these languages
5. Introduction to Computer Networks:
Architecture of seven layers of communications
6. Introduction to Data Structure:
Like Queues, list, trees, Binary trees algorithms, Flow chart,
Structured Systems Analysis and development, Ingress-SQL, Gateways
etc. Statistics, methodologies, computer Graphics; Introduction
7. Basic language:
Constrants and Variables: Character set, constrants, variables,
Naming the variables getting data into memory, LET, INPUT, READ,
DATA, Print Statement.
Arithmetic expression, Hierarchy of operations, Rules of Arithmetic,
Evaluation of expressions, Relational expressions Logical operations,
Comma and semicolon control, the TAB funedon. PRINT, LPRINT.
Jumping, Branching and Looping:
GOTO, IF ..... THEN, ON ...... GOTO,FOR ...... NEXT Statements.
Functions and Subroutines:
User defined functions, subroutines, subscripted variables.
8. Programming (Tutorial)
'C', PASCAL, FORTRAN
PHARMACEUTICS-VI : HOSPITAL AND CLINICAL PHARMACY INCLUDING
Part 1-Hospital Pharmacy
1. Status of health delivery systems in India. Definition and role
of hospitals in the health delivery systems. Types of hospitals.
2. Hospital Pharmacy, Definition, functions and objectives of hospital
pharmacy, Location, Layout & flow chart of
material and men, personnel and facilities required, including equipments.
3. Drug distribution system in Hospitals:
a. Out patients
b. In patients: Detailed discussion of
i. Unit dose dispensing
ii. Floor ward stock system & satellite pharmacy services
iii. Central sterile services; bed side pharmacy
4. Establishment of an OTC counter & dispensing; personnel.,
space; equipment; apparatus and other facilities
required for; Methods to achieve safe and efficient and speedy dispensing
5. Maintenance of records of issue and use of Narcotics and Dangerous
drugs, Ward stock medicines and emergency
6. Medical Stores:
Objectives, Layout facilities; Procedures for procurement of drugs
and supplies from medical stores depot,
manufacturer, distributor, local market; procedure and limits of
7. Pharmacy Therapeutics Committee:
Constitution and functions of Pharmacy therapeutics committee,
Hospital formulary system and their organization, Functions and
8. Drug Information service and drug information bulletin
9. Manufacturing of pharmaceuticals in Hospitals
a. Sterile Manufacture
Large and small volume parenterals; facilities, requirements, layout,
production planning, manpower requirements
b. Non-sterile manufacture.
Liquid orals, external bulk concentrates
10. Nomenclature and uses of surgical instruments, hospital equipments
and health accessories
Part II-Clinical Pharmacy and Drug Interactions
11. Introduction to clinical pharmacy practice
Definition and scope
Common daily terminology used in the practice of medicine
12. Functioning and working of clinical pharmacy unit; manpower
13. Methodology and techniques of Analysis of drug contents and
their metabolites in blood and other biological fluids and to correlate
the therapeutic efficacy with drug concentrations in biological
14. Biological half life; pKa values, pH-partition coefficient
and stability with reference to clinical applications
15. Pharmacists and patient counseling including specific examples
16. Drug interactions
a. Definition and Introduction
Mechanism of drug interactions
b. Drug - Drug Interactions with reference to Analgesics, Diuretics,
Cardiovascular drugs, Gastrointestinal agents, Vitamins and Hypoglycemic
17. Adverse drug reactions
a. Definition and significance
b. Drug Induced disease and teratogenicity
18. Drugs in clinical toxicity:
Introduction, general treatment of poisoning, systemic antidotes,
Treatment of poisoning due to insecticides, heavy metals, narcotics,
barbiturates, organophosphorous compounds
19. Drug dependence, Drug abuse, addictive drugs and their treatment,
1. Laboratory testing for drugs and their metabolites in Urine/Blood
2. Preparation of parenterals products by the following methods
Asceptic technique, involving sterilization by filtration Involving
terminal steam sterilization
3. Demonstration of some common surgical instruments, hospital
equipments and health accessories
4. Common daily terminology used in the practice of medicine
5. Monograph on drug interactions (at least one monograph for each
6. Sterilization of following classes of products
a. All glass syringes, with metallic needles
b. Surgical dressings
c. Surgical Equipments
d. Surgeon's Gloves (Rubber)
e. Ointment bases (Petroleum based)
f. Powders (Starch, talcum)
Any other experiment illustrative of theory
PHARMACEUTICS-VII: FORENSIC PHARMACY AND ETHICS
1. Historical Background:
Drug legislation in India, Code of Ethics for Pharmacists
2. Drug Laws:
(A detailed study : Case study (actual/simulated) inclusive of
a. Prevention of cruelty of animals act
b. Pharmacy Act 1948
c. Drugs and cosmetic Act 1940, Rules 1945
d. Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic substance Act, and Rules thereunder
e. Drugs and Magic Remedies (Objectionable Advertisements) Act
f. Medicinal and Toilet Preparations (Excise Duties) Act 1955,
g. Poison Act
h. Factory Act
i. Delhi shops and Establishment Act
j. Medical termination of pregnancy Act
k. The Drug (price control) order
1. The Insecticide Act
Drug Store Management:
Organization of Drug store, location and layout, Inventory and
stock control and retail, (Purchasing, receiving, inspection and
issue of materials).
Storage of materials (Non-parenterals, Parenterals), Stock control,
Records, Accounting, Computer utilization in Pharmacy Practice.
Pricing policy : (basis for prices, Documentation, Methods - percentage
mark up method, Dispensing Fee method, Per Diem charge method, Combination
and Modifications of standard methods etc.)
PHARMACEUTICS-VIII: FORMULATIVE PHARMACY AND COSMETICOLOGY
1. Preformulation studies:
Physical Properties - Polymorphism, solubility, Rheology, Salt
formation and partitioning
Chemical Properties - Hydrolytic degradation, oxidation, Drug substance
- Excipient interaction, other changes
Biologic and Pharmacologic - Properties of dosage forms
2. Monophasic and Biphasic dosage forms
Interfacial Phenomena, forces and energetic in disperse phases.
of Emulsion and suspension preparations
3. Blood Products
Classification and preparation on large scale, preparation of plasma
expanders, preservation and storage of blood products, official
4. Radio Pharmaceuticals:
Radioactivity, production of Radionuclides, Radiation hazards,
Radiological safety, Medical applications of Radiopharmaceutical
5. Raw materials used for Cosmetic preparations:
Surfactants, Humectants, Cream bases, Aerosol propellants, perfumes,
6. Hair care products
Introduction, hair structure, shampoos, conditioners, styling aids,
setting lotion, hair creams, bleaches and hair dyes.
7. Skin care products :
Introduction, anatomy and physiology of skin, formulation of skin
cleaners, moisturizers, sun screen products, acne products.
8. Color cosmetics:
Introduction, lip colors, nail polish, face make up, eye make up.
9. Dental products:
Dentrifrices, oral rinses, tooth powder, tooth paste.
10. Personal hygeine products:
Toilet soaps, shaving soaps, antiperspirants , deodorants.
1. Preparation and quality control of
a) Cold cream
b) Vanishing cream
c) Cleansing lotion and cream
d) Moisturizing cream
e) Skin tonics
f) Hair creams for hair conditioning
h) Hair colorants
j) Shaving creams and sticks
l) Tooth pastes
m) After shave lotions and other cosmetics
2. Experiments to illustrate comparative study of suspending agents,
emulsifying agents, antioxidants and
PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY-V, PHARMACEUTICAL ANALYSIS
(PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY & PRINCIPLES OF INSTRUMENTAL
1. Ionisation and ionic equilibria:Arrhenius theory, degree of
ionisation and Ostwald dilution law, common ion effect, buffer solutions
and preparation of pharmaceutical buffer solution, approximate calculation
of buffer capacity excluding the derivation of Vanslykes equation
of buffer capacity, buffers in pharmaceutical and biological systems,
2. Hydrogen ion concentration, determination of pH values (potentiometric
and colorimetric), indicators, sulphonaphthalein indicators, screened
indicators, natural colouring matters, theories of indicators.
3. Solutions: Lowering of vapour pressure and Raoult's Law, osmosis
and osmotic pressure, measurement of osmotic pressure, isotonic
solutions, pharmaceutical applications of osmosis, theories of semipermeable
membranes, colligative properties, elevation of boiling point and
its experimental determination, depression of freezing point and
its determination, distribution law and solvent extraction method,
electrolyte and non electrolytes, Debye-Huckel theory, ionic equilibria
in blood, characterization of acid base functional groups.
4. Catalysis. Homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis, acid base
catalysis, theories of catalysis, poisoning and
applications of catalysis.
5. Chemical kinetics: Order and molecularity of a reaction, examples
of Ist and 2nd order of reaction, method of
determining order of a reaction.
6. Thermodynamics: First law of thermodynamics, work done in expansion
of gases, internal energy, enthalpy, heat
7. Potentiometric analysis: Potentials of galvanic cells, potentiometric
acid- base titrations potentiometric pH determination, precipitation
and complex formation, oxidation-reduction titrations, applications
8. Canductometric analysis.. Definitions of units in conductometric
titrations. determination of water analysis of salt solutions, measurement
of conductance, high frequency (oscillometric) method, applications.
9. Aquametry: Brief account of aquametry, physical methods for
water determination in brief, thermal methods, azeotropic distillation,
refractive index, spectrophotometric method, gas chromatography,
electrochemical methods, chemical methods of water determination,
Kari Fischer's method of moisture determination, other chemical
methods involving the use of organic and inorganic reagents.
10. Spectrofluorimetry: Fluorescence, spectrofluorimetry and analytical
11. Principles of turbidimetry.
12. Polarimetry: Its principles and applications; polarization
types of molecule analysed; optical rotation; effects of concentration,
wavelength, solvent, temperature on optical rotation; polarimeter,
light source, sample cells.
Experiments based on surface tension, viscosity, partition coefficient,
kinetics, solubility product, critical solution temperature. Exercises
involving polarimetry, refractometry and pH-determination.
PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY VI (MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY-1)
1. Principles of medicinal chemistry including drug absorption,
distribution and elimination, physico chemical and steric aspects
and drug receptor interaction and rational drug design, drug metabolism.
2. The following topics shall he treated covering outline of synthetic
procedures (of selected drugs), uses, structure activity relationship
including physiocochemical and steric aspects and mode of action.
Adrenergic hormones and drugs, cholinergic and anticholinesterases,
antispasmodic agents, anticonvulsant, psychopharmacological agents;
antipsychotic agents, antidepressants, and antianxiety agents; uricosurics
(antigouts), muscle relaxants, histamine and antihistamines, antiparkinsonism
drugs, diuretics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, hypoglycemic
agents, hallucinogens, diagnostic agents, expectorant and antitussives.
Synthesis of compounds of medicinal interest including synthesis
involving two steps and synthesis of heterocyclic compounds.
PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY VII (NATURAL PRODUCTS)
1 General methods of isolation of natural products, belonging to
2. An account of the chemistry of mono, di- and polysaccharides:
arabinose, mannose, glucose, fructose, sucrose, maltose, lactose,
cellulose, starch, glycogen and dextran. Study of the naturally
occurring glycosides (excluding cardiac glycosides Indican ruberythric
acid, amygdalin, salicin, sinigrin, arbutin and methyl arbutin.
3. Proteins and amino acids.. Classification, general methods of
preparation and properties of amino acids, general nature of proteins,
classification of proteins, C-terminal and N-terminal amino acid
determination. Structural features of DNA and RNA (excluding three
4. Terpenoids.. Classification, isolation and structure determination
of some important terpenoids: Limonene, pinene, cincole, menthol,
menthone, camphor, thymol & citral.
5. Alkaloids: Isolation, general methods of determination of structure,
estimation of functional groups, structure elucidation and syntheses
of some selected simple members, ephedrine, nicotine, atropine,
cocaine, quinine, cinchonine, papaverine, morphine, reserpine, ergotamine.
6. Xanthine bases: Isolation, structure determination and synthesis
of Caffeine, theophylline and theobromine.
7. Study of the chemistry of lipids (fats, oils and waxes); phospholipids.
8. Chemistry of flavones and isoflavones (Preliminary studies).
1. Analysis of fixed oils:, determination of acid value, saponification
value and iodine value.
2. solation of a few naturally occurring compounds such as caffeine,
from tea leaves.
3. Estimation of following organic groups: hydroxyl (alcoholic
and phenolic), aldehyde, amino & carboxylic groups.
Study of volatile oil containing following drugs with regard to
the nature occurrence, chemistry and biogenesis. Pharmacognostic
study of drugs underlined.
1. Hydrocarbons: Pepper., , turpentine. 2. Alcohol: Mentha, Coriander
, Cardamom. 3. Aldehyde: Cinnamon, Cassia, Lemon Peel, Lemon grass,
Citronella, Cumin. 4. Ketone: Caraway, Dill, Spearmint. 5. Phenol:
e1Qy-c 6. Phenolic ethers: Anise, Star Anise, Fennel, Nutmeg. 7.
Oxides: Eucalyptus, Chenopodium.
2. Commercial production, export potential and world trade in oil
of mentha, Eucalyptus oil and oleoresins from pinus species and
lemon grass oil.
3. Nature, occurrence, chemistry, collection and preparation of
drugs containing. 1. Balsams : (Tolu balsam; Peru balsam, Benzoin).
2. Acid resins: (Colophony). 3. Gum resin: Myrrh, Asafoetida . 4.
Resins; Colocynth, Ginger, Turmeric, Capsicum, Cannabis, podophyllum
(Pharmacognostic study of drugs underlined).
4. Biological source, preparation and uses of the following enzymes:
Diastase, papain, Maltase, Bromalein, ficin.
5. Quantitative microscopy.
6. Factors affecting drug constituents.
7. Drug adulteration.
1. Identification through morphological, sensory and chemical characteristics
of drugs included in 1 and 3.
2. Chemical evaluation of oil of Mentha, lemon grass oil, Clove
3. Quantitative microscopy of leafy drugs.
4. Field collection of medicinal and aromatic plants and preparation
of herbarium sheets
Monograph on one of the plants collected during Pharmacognosy tour.
I. DRUGS ACTING ON CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
1.Synaptic transmission in the CNS
2. General anaesthetics, Dissociative and neurolept- anaesthesia
3. Hypnotics and sedatives
6. Psychopharmacological agents
7. Antiparkinsonian drugs
8.Non-steroidal analgesics, anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic
agents, drugs used in gout
9. Narcotic analgesics, opiod poisoning and treatment
10. Drug abuse and drug addiction 11. CNS stimulants
11. Local anesthetics
II. DRUGS ACTING ON CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
1. Cardiac glycosides and positive ionotropic agents
2. Antiarrhythmic drugs
3. Antihypertensive drugs
4. Coronary vasodilators and Drugs used in Angina
5. Hypolipidemic drugs
6. Fibrinolytic agents
III. DRUGS ACTING ON THE BLOOD AND BLOOD FORMING AGENTS
3. Haematinics (iron, vitamin B,2 and Folic acid)
4. Plasma expanders
V. DRUGS ACTING ON GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM
Antacids and treatment of peptic ulcers
Emetics and anti emetics
Digestants and drugs used for dissolution of gallstones.
VI. DRUGS ACTING ON RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
Drugs used in common cold
Stages of chloroform and ether anesthesia with and without premedication
Study of phenobarbitone induced hypnosis (Demonstration)
Determination of analgesic activity(codeine/aspirin)
Study of anticonvulsant
Study of local anesthetic activity
Surface anesthesia on activity rabbits
Infiltration anesthesia using guinea pigs
Nerve block anesthesia
Study of drugs on perfused frog heart
Study of drugs on isolated frog heart
Identification of unknown drugs using frog heart
Study of effect of purgative in frog/mice/rat.
Study of drugs on blood vessels(frog)
Effect of drug on cilliary movements
BIO CHEMISTRY (THEORY)
1. Classification of enzymes
General mechanisms of enzyme action
Factors affecting the velocity of enzyme catalysed reaction
Activators and inactivators of enzymatic reactions
Application of metabolic antagonism
II. BIOLOGICAL OXIDATIONS
1. Oxidation-reduction chains in nature
2. Oxidative Phosphorylation
III. METABOLISM OF CARBOHYDRATE
Anaerobic metabolism of Glucose
Aerobic metabolism (Kreb's cycle)
Regulation of blood glucose concentration
IV. METABOLISM OF LIPIDS
1. Fatty acid metabolism
2. Oxidation of fatty acids
3. Biosynthesis of fatty acids
4. Synthesis and degradation of Triglycerides
5. Hormonal influence on the mobilisation of fat in adipose tissue
V. METABOLISM OF PROTEINS
Amino acid degradation and U" cycle
Metabolism of tyrosine and Tryptophan
VI PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
1. Transmission and expression of genetic information
2. DNA genetic role
3 DNA Structure and replication
4. RNA and transcription
5. Gene-protein relationship
6. Control of Protein Synthesis
VII. METABOLISM OF NUCLEIC ACIDS
Metabolism of purines and Pyrimdines
VIII. METABOLISM OF INORGANIC ELEMENTS
Calcium, Phosphorous, magnesium, Trace elements
IX. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
1 Estimation of glucose in blood
2. Estimation of Liver glycogen
3. Estimation of protein in Serum
4. Determination of Creatinine and Creatine in blood and Urine
5. Estimation of Chloride in Serum and Urine
6. Estimation of free fatty acids in Serum
7. Estimation of Uric acid in Serum and Urine
8. Determination of acid and alkaline phosphate
9. Determination of SGOT and SGPT
10. Determination of blood Cholesterol
11. Estimation of RNA and DNA
12. Determination of Serum bilirubin
13. Electrophoretic separation of serum proteins
14. Fat determination in milk
PHARMACEUTICAL BIOTECHNOLOGY (THEORY)
Brief introduction to biotechnology with reference to Pharmaceutical
Genetic Engineering : Structure, function and properties of genetic
material. Basic principles of genetic engineering, DNA recombination,
Application in medicine.
Enzyme and cell immobilization method for immobilization, Applications.
Plant biotechnology : Natural plant products, their uses, plant
cell. Cultures for the production of useful chemicals, plant tissue
culture, protoplast fusion, totipotency, direct gene transfer.
Medical technology : Blood products, Immunoglobulins by hybridoma
technology, synthesis of monoclonal antibody, biopolymers, derivative
of biopolymers and their application in medicine.
PHARMACEUTICS-IX: PHARMACEUTICAL MANAGEMENT
1. Personnel Management and Industrial Relations:
Objectives and functions of personnel department, Employment and
development of personnel. Industrial Relations: Problems of labour
management relations, courses of Industrial disputes, Remedies,
Industrial Dispute Act, Trade. Union, Grievance and Grievance Handling
procedure, Causes of grievances, Need for grievance procedure, Grievance
Objectives, Rules of Motivation, Motivation steps, Types of motivation,
Non-financial motivators, Theories of motivation: McGregor's Theory
X and Y, Herzberg's Time factor theory, McClelland's Need for Achievement
theory Vroom's Fxpentancy theory, Behavioural theory, Employee-
Importance, Nature of communication, oral vs. written Media of
Communication, Barriers to communication, Communication failure,
Achieving effective communication
4. Purchasing and Store Keeping.
Objectives, Organisation and responsibilities of purchasing department,
methods of purchasing, Centralised and Decentralised purchasing
Types of stores Depot, Location and Layout of a store, problems
5. Materials management.
Materials handling, Equipment, Inventory management, Economic ordering
quantity, ABC analysis, Value analysis, classification and codification
of stores, obsolete, surplus and scrap management, lead time, inventory
carrying costs, safety stock, solutions to problems relating to
6. Drug Supply:
Planning and management, supply process and its pitfalls, planning
for drug supply, planning models, steps to develop a formulary,
predicting drug requirements, procurement cycle and its methods,
designing training programs to improve pharmaceutical logistics
7. Pharmaceutical Marketing..
Goals, theories of selling process, company market, systems, market
and sale forecasting, market test method, statistical Demand analysis,
Types of sales organizations, Salesmanship, Qualification of a salesman,
Channels of Distribution Advertising, Presentation and analysis
of statistical data. (Charts, frequency distribution)
8. Establishment of a pharmaceutical factory:
Choice of site, trends in location of a plant, plant facilities,
layout of stores in an industry, layout of Injectable unit or sterile
area, tableting department and area requirement for each department
PHARMACEUTICS-X: BIOPHARMACEUTICS AND PHARMACOKINETICS
1. Introduction to biopharmaceutics, definition, historical development
of the subject, Fundamental principles and concepts. Definitions
and explanation of the various terms connected with the study of
biopharmaceutics like Bioavailability, Bioequivalence and chemical
equivalence, therapeutic equivalence etc.
2. Drug Absorption:
Various mechanisms, physico-chemical factors affecting drug absorption,
biological factors in drug absorption, dosage form considerations
in gastro-intestinal absorption
Number of lectures 5
3. Drug disposition:
Distribution in blood, plasma-protein binding, cellular distribution,
drug penetration to cell, drug excretion renal, biliary, salivary
Concept of bioavailability and comparative bioavailability Methods
of estimation of bioavailability using blood level and urinary excretion
1 Introduction to pharmacokinetics, importance in bioavailability
and clinical practice and concepts. Definition and explanation of
2 Absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of drugs.
Biological half-life, apparent volume of distribution. Fluid compartments
and circulatory system
3 Compartments models- concepts and their importance in the study
of pharmacokinetics. One compartment open model. Determination of
drug /metabolite levels on administration of single and multiple
dose in plasma and urine after i.v. injection. Oral administration
and first order absorption. Percent absorbed time plot and absorption
rates based on one compartment model.
4 Two compartments open model, pharmacokinetics of single and multiple
dose administration as applied to intravenous (rapid) and oral administration,
5 Pharmacokinetic basis of sustained release formulations.
1. Establishment of standard curve of a drug substance.
2. Disintegration and Dissolution of peroral tablets.
3. Influence of vehicle on drug availability from topical dosage
4. Release of drug from suppository base.
5.Evaluation of antacid products, by acid neutralizing capacity
and Rosset-Rice test methods.
6.Comparative in-vitro release rate studies of marketed formulations.
7.Determination of bioavailability of marketed formulations by
plasma concentration method.
8.Determination of bioavailability of marketed formulations by
urinary excretion method.
9. Drug release from capsules, effect of diluents etc.
10. Effect of protein binding be egg albumin; dialysis method.
11. Determination of pharmacokinetic parameters and determination
and evaluation of bioavailability of drug administered by IV, IM
12. Practice numericals based on the portions covered under theory
PHARMACEUTICS-XI: PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY
1. Mixing :
Fluid mixing, mechanism and types of flow, equipments.
Solids mixing, mixing mechanism, equipment.
2. Capsules :
Hard gelatin capsules; formulation of shell and contents, capsule
filling operation and equipment employed.
Soft gelatin capsules : Manufacture, processing and quality control.
3. Microencapsulation :
Importance and application, techniques, equipment employed.
4. Tablets :
Production of tablets, additives and components, preparation of
components for compression, forms of compressed tablets, evaluation.
Sugar coating, film coating, Air suspension coating, film defects
5. Measurement of tablet punch forces:
Transmission of forces through a powder. Distribution of forces
within the powder mass, Effect of pressure on the relative volume,
Adhesion and cohesion of particles strength of granules and tablets.
Factors affecting the strength of tablets.
6. .Pharmaceutical aerosols:
Components, formulation, types of systems, manufacturing, operation
of an aerosol package, quality control and testing, oral, Inhalation,
Nasal and topical Aerosols, Future developments.
7. Controlled drug delivery system :
Introduction, Terminology, Drug Targeting, Design and Fabrication
of oral controlled release drug delivery system. Introduction to
implantable and transdermal Therapeutic system
8. Sustained action dosage form:
Drug replacement rate, unit drug dose, mechanisms, formulation
and manufacture of sustained action dosage form.
9. Packaging technology:
Types of containers; materials used, closures,. unit dose packaging,
strip packaging materials, packaging of solid, parenterals, and
ophthalmic dosage forms
10. Good manufacturing practices for pharmaceuticals:
Status and applicability of regulation, current good manufacturing
practices in manufacturing, processing, packaging & holding
of drugs, production and process controls, ISO 9000 certification.
1 Preparation of tablets by the following techniques
a. Wet granulation (Aqueous)
b. Wet granulation (non-aqueous)
c. Dry granulation (Slugging)
2. Coating of tablets - sugar coating and film coating
3 Strip packing of tablets
4. Quality control of tablets
5. Filling and sealing of hard capsules
6. Quality control of capsules
7. Preparation of sustained release dosage forms employing various
8. Preparation of an aerosol dosage form and its evaluation
9. Preparation of microcapsules by employing various tech.
10. Any other experiments illustrative of the theory of syllabus
PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY-Vlll (PHARMACEUTICAL ANALYSIS III)
1. Chromatography: Fundamental principles of chromatography, adsorption,
partition, column, paper, thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography,
electrophoresis high performance liquid chromatography. Instrumentation
with particular reference to quantitative estimation of drugs and
biopharmaceutical agents. Theory of ion exchange, type of exchangers,
ion-exchange equil ibria, ion-exchange separation, applications
in pharmaceutical analysis.
2. Visible and ultraviolet absorption spectrophotometry: Principles
of visual and UV absorption spectrophotometry, qualitative and quantitative
3. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Resonance: An introduction to the
theory of NMR, chemical shifts, spin spin coupling, NMR instrumentation,
structure elucidation and qualitative analysis of drugs.
4. Infrared spectrophotometry: Origin of infrared spectra and regions,
qualitative and quantitative analysis, instruments and applications.
5. Mass spectrometry: Basic principles, instrumentation, the mass
spectra, determination of molecular formula, molecular ion peak,
fragmentation, mass spectra of some simple molecules.
6. Flame photometry: Origin of spectra, atomization and ionization,
instrumentation, background emission, qualitative d quantitative
applications in pharmaceutical analysis.
7. Atomic absorption spectroscopy: Theory of absorption of radiant
energy by atoms, equipment, analytical applications.
8. Emission spectroscopy: Theory of emission spectra, equipment,
qualitative and quantitative applications.
9. Polarography: Introduction, theoretical consideration, organic
polarography, dropping mercury electrode, basic principles of polarographic
instruments, methods of analysis, experiments including amperometric
10. Analysis of drugs with particular reference to instrumental
methods as included in Indian Pharmacopoeia.
Antibiotics: Benzylpenicillin, tetracyclin, chloramphenicol.
Vitamins: Ascorbic acid, thiamine, vitamin A,
Sulphonamides: Sulphanilamide, Sulphadiazine.
1. Experiments based on thin-layer and paper chromatography.
2. Analysis of drugs by instrumental methods as included in Indian
PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY IX (MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY II)
1. Steroids: Nomenclature, stereochemistry, classification, isolation
methods, chemistry (excluding synthesis) of cholesterol, diosgenin,
stigmasterol, ergosterol, beta-sitosterol and steroidal alkaloids.
2. Steroids and related drugs: Androgens & anabolic agents,
esterogens and progestational agents (oral contraceptives) and adrenocorticoids.
3. Cardiac glycosides, coronary dilators, hypotensive, anti-arrhythmic,
antifibrilatory and antilipidemic agents.
4. The following topics shall be treated covering outline of synthetic
procedures (of selected drugs), uses, structure activity relationship
including physicochemical and steric aspects and mode of action:
antibiotics, antimalarials, antiamoebic, drugs used for trypanosomiasis
and other protozoan diseases, anthelminties, antifungal agents,
antineoplastic agents, antiviral agents (including treatment of
AIDS) antitubercular drugs, medicinal dyes.
5. Chemistry of vitamins (excluding the detailed study of constitution).
Two or three step synthesis of some compounds of medicinal interest.
1. Study of drugs containing glycosides: Nature, Occurrence, Chemistry
Anthraquinone glycosides: Cascara, aloe, Rhubarb, Senna Cardiac
glycosides: Digitalis, Strophanthus, Squill, Theyetia.
Bitter glycosides: Quassia.
Saponin glycosides: Dioscorea, Quillia Flavonoid glycosides: Ruta
2. Study of drugs containing alkaloids: Nature, Occurrence, Chemistry
and Biosynthesis. Pyridine-piperidine alkaloids: Nicotine, areca
nut. Tropane alkaloids: Belladonna, Hyoscymus, Stramonium, Duboisia.
Quinoline alkaloids: Cinchona
Isoquinoline alkaloids: Opium, lpecac
Indole alkaloids: Nux-vomica, Ergot, Rauwvffla, Catharanthus.
Steroidal alkaloids: Kurchi, Solanum
Alkaloidal Amines: Ephedra, Colchicum.
3. Botanical source, history, clinical uses, chemical, constituents,
authentication and standardization of traditional drugs such as
Tylophora indica, Tribulus terrestils, Allium sativum, Achyranthus
aspera, Centelia asiatica, Boerhea diffusa, Phyllanthus embelica,
Azadirachta indica, Ocimum sanctam, Commiphora mukul, Swertia of
chirata, Withania somnifera.
4. Study of general aspects of plant tissue culture techniques
and their contribution to phytopharmaceuticals. Plant growth regulators.
5. Processes of plant extraction and chromatographic techniques
as applicable to phytopharmaceuticals.
6. World wide trade, commercial potential and demand of crude drugs
with reference to phytochemical industry in India.
1. Identification of drugs in 1,2 and 3 based on morphological
and sensory characters.
2. Microscopy of drugs underlined in 1 and 2 and chemical tests
3. Extraction and preparation of T.L.C. profile of some volatile
oil containing drugs.
4. Preparation of T.L.C. profile of alkaloidal extracts of Datura,
Nux-vomica, Rauwolfia. and Cinchona.
5. Extraction of piperine from Piper nigrum, total alkaloids of
Cuichona (Gravimetric method) and Sennosides from
6. Project work.
General principles of chemotherapy
Sulfonamides, Quinolones and other chemotherapeutics agents
Antifungal and antiviral drugs
Chemotherapy of Tuberculosis and leprosy
Chemotherapy of cancer
II. PHARMACOLOGY OF ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
1. Pituitary hormones
2. Thyroid - antithyroid drugs
3. Insulin, oral hypoglycemics and glucagon
4. Adrenocortical steroids and their antagonists
5. Sex hormones, contraceptives and drugs used in infertility
6. Drugs regulating calcium homoeostasis
1. General principles and methods of Bioassays
2. Official methods of bioassay :
Insulin, Heparin, Oxytocin, d-tubocurarin, Vasopressin, Digitalis,
ACTH GIucagon, Gonadotrophin
IV. EVALUATION OF NEW DRUGS
1. Acute, subacute and chronic toxicity tests
2. Teratogenicity & Carcinogenicity
3 Clinical trials
Bio-assay of following by using appropriate isolated tissue preparation
Acetylcholine, histamine, adrenaline, Oxytocin.