aim to take up this study was the recent controversy on the use
of mustard oil in our country. Mustard oil contains high amount
of erucic acid and glucosinolates that, according to few reports,
are toxic to experimental animals. The use of Indian mustard oil
is discouraged in the International market due to its high erucic
acid and glucosinolate content. Western countries including U.S.
have banned the use of Indian mustard oil thus effecting export
of this oil. To solve the controversy this study was conducted to
evaluate the toxicity of high dose (50 calorie % in fat free diet)
of mustard oil, unboiled and boiled (185-190 ºC for 15 min)
with other edible oils (corn oil and sunflower oil) for 3, 6 and
12 months. The lipid profile in serum, heart and aorta of male wistar
rats were carried out. Serum was also used for the liver function
and kidney function tests. Histopathological responses of twelve
month rat heart and aorta tissue were investigated.
significant alterations were observed in the content of serum cholesterol,
triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high-density
lipoprotein-cholesterol, total cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol ratio,
cholesterol:phospholipid ratio, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transamimnase,
serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, bilirubin, creatinine and
blood urea nitrogen levels after giving mustard oil (unboiled and
boiled), corn oil and sunflower oil in the diet for 3, 6 and 12
months. No toxicity with mustard oil either boiled or unboiled was
phospholipid, ganglioside and esterified fatty acid levels were
analyzed in heart and aorta tissues of experimental animals. The
total cholesterol levels were decreased non-significantly with sunflower
oil in rat heart. Also there was non-significant decrease in esterified
fatty acid levels in rat heart with sunflower oil. Cholesterol-phospholipid
ratio in heart remained unchanged with all the edible oils throughout
the study. The pathological changes observed in rat cardiac muscle
fibres given 50 calorie % unboiled and boiled mustard oil in fat
free diets for twelve months revealed majority of cardiac muscle
fibres normal except a few muscle fibres with pyknotic nucleus and
early degenerative changes. However cardiac pathology was not reflected
in serum biochemistry of these rats. No changes in cardiac muscle
fibres were observed in corn oil and sunflower oil group.
total cholesterol levels was decreased non-significantly with all
the edible oils after three months but increased after six and twelve
months of study in rat aorta. Also there was non-significant depletion
in the content of esterified fatty acid in rat aorta with sunflower
oil. No significant alterations were observed with all the edible
oils in the content of cholesterol, phospholipid, ganglioside and
esterified fatty acid in rat aorta. Aortic cholesterol-phospholipid
ratio remained unchanged with all the edible oils after three, six
and twelve months. Pathological examination of the aorta of rats
given 50 calorie % unboiled and boiled mustard oil, corn oil and
sunflower oil for twelve months showed a smooth intima with no macroscopic
evidence of atheromatous lesions. Our study indicated no toxic symptoms
of mustard oil (unboiled or boiled).
significant changes in these parameters were observed in either
of the experimental group of animals. Mustard oil has been found
equally as effective as corn oil and sunflower oil in reducing plasma
total and LDL Cholesterol levels in rats.
oil is healthy as it has 30 per cent protein, calcium, phytins,
phenolics and natural anti-oxidants. Mustard oil contains high amount
of mono-unsaturated fatty acids and a good ratio of polyunsaturated
fatty acids, which is good for heart. Mustard oil contains the least
amount of saturated fatty acids, making it safe for heart patients.
the pungent principle in mustard oil, has anti bacterial, anti fungal
and anti-carcinogenic properties, which account for many medicinal
utilities of the oil.
modern concept is to take a mix of polyunsaturated and monounsaturated
fat based cooking oils. These include sunflower oil, groundnut oil,
corn oil, safflower oil and mustard oil. The relatively high level
of oleic acid and the favorable balance between linolenic and linoleic
acids is present in mustard oil.
may be concluded that it is the safest oil and is as good as any
other edible oil.